Road construction is a long process that can consume more than 10 years, depending on the area of the planned pathway. It involves many construction crews and plant machines and needs careful planning and several evaluations, including environmental and structural estimations.
The road construction entirely depends on machinery such as trucks, bulldogs, cranes and many more. And the construction companies prefer the best machinery. For example, Eicher truck has the capability to work in the construction field with ease. So the company chose it for their operations.
Once road construction has started, there are various stages before the road available for use.
1. Stages in Road Construction
A. Clearing and Excavation
The road construction area must be clear of all vegetation, which needs removing plants, trees, bushes and shrubs. Mining vehicles will also dig up and eliminate stones and rocks from the expected road’s pathway. To prevent the cleared land from depletion, fences, control devices, ditches and basins must be installed.
The road gain shape as diggers, bulldozers and mining plant machines mount soil and dirt over the area where the cars and vehicles will run in future. After that, we smoothed and levelled the surface with graders. To prevent the road from flooding by groundwater, stormwater or sewage, ditches and drains, we have to lay giant pipes.
C. Fine Grading
Fine grading needs construction workers to outfit the surface by levelling it according to designs provided by architectural engineers. Fine grading demands manual labour and digging, as well as grading machinery, also named graders. It stables with limestone or concrete to make the grading last.
D. Aggregate Base
After adding grading of the surface, the aggregate base laid. The aggregate base made of gravel or crushed stone, and we place it equally on the surface. Suppose the construction is in a city or town. We have to build a curb for the road and the sewer straight after the rocks placed on the surface. The path is then a finely graded repeat.
E. Asphalt Paving
Once the chips have spread evenly, the pavement can pour. Asphalt is a mix-up of a petroleum byproduct, an aggregate base stock and a gluey, glue like material called bitumen. Up to four pavement layers can place on top of each other, which depends on the traffic. The asphalt usually produced and processed in large plants after the specifications of engineers. We fill hot blacktop into trucks carrying the material to the site, where we will pour it instantly. Before we pour the last layer of pavement, the footpaths and sewers have to finish. We arrange construction work by placing the suitable road signs at the areas specified by administrators and applying road indications.
2. Road Construction Methods
The primary construction method for building a road is related to any route. The differences occur in the finishing of the road or the surface components used to finish a road.
The process begins with road layout, including viewing the route, drainage and analysing the expected traffic volume and planned expansion in the area. Next, the primary base layers are completed using bulldozers, graders, levellers and compactors, and then the surface film is applied.
A. Asphalt Paving
After the road base is ready and securely packed, the surface layer is installed. Asphalt — officially known in the engineering parlance as road concrete — is a common material for many roads, providing a solid and flexible surface. Asphalt requires an aggregate sub-base substance layer, and then we put a base layer into point first. Before we pave the veneer with hot pavement, it must be diffused with a tack coat of liquid asphalt. A machine then melts the binder and aggregate and spreads it to an even floor. The U.S. Department of Transportation, over one-half of the regional highway systems, pave 70% of all roadways with this hot-mix road concrete called blacktop.
B. Cement Concrete Paving
Cement concrete uses water and cement as the required agent for the whole mix. Cement paving also needs thick base layers of compacted aggregate to form a solid cover for the road. Operators must then create moulds or forms on the sides of the projected route to check the concrete from levelling before it sets. Cement concrete is split up with regular joints, combined with wire baskets and dowels. This allows the cement to extend and contract during periodic temperature changes without degrading the road’s surface. The cover may be grooved or tined with a machine for stabler traction.
C. Tar and Chip/Macadam
We have been using This style for many years, and it was the first example of flooring installed on early roads. Today, we use chip and tar as a recoating substance, not as the primary pavement in public ways. However, it is still a popular method for driveways, and we are typically using it for road reconstruction on public roads because it is cost-effective and permanent. We divide a thick layer of tar or bitumen in tar and chip concrete on the inclined base cover. And then, we use a coat of chips or small stones over the tar and press it into the tar with a roller. The stones may be of changing sizes for different finished surfaces. When we use this approach for driveways, sometimes reddened or decorative stones are used. This can be a powerful and cost-effective finishing method.
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